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GALIG gene expression induces apoptosis in cultured cells through a pathway still under investigation. It is highly expressed in leukocytes but weakly detectable in bone marrow, suggesting a role in the myeloid lineage homeostasis. We show here that GALIG-induced cell death is counteracted by the overexpression of MCL-1, a pro-survival member of the Bcl2 family. Moreover, during spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, a substantial increase in GALIG gene expression is observed : GALIG still opposes MCL-1. Finally, in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells from patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia type 2, the level of GALIG transcripts is massively down-regulated when compared to their normal counterparts, while MCL-1 is expressed to the same extent. These data suggest that GALIG could be a key player in the cell death pathway involved in leukocytes homeostasis and myeloid malignancies.
Dimerization of genomic RNA is directly related with the event of encapsidation and maturation of the virion. The initiating sequence of the dimerization is a short autocomplementary region in the hairpin loop SL1. We describe here a new solution structure of the RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS) of HIV-1(Lai). NMR pulsed field-gradient spin-echo techniques and multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy indicate that this structure is formed by two hairpins linked by six Watson-Crick GC base pairs. Hinges between the stems and the loops are stabilized by intra and intermolecular interactions involving the A8, A9 and A16 adenines. The coaxial alignment of the three A-type helices present in the structure is supported by previous crystallography analysis but the A8 and A9 adenines are found in a bulged in position. These data suggest the existence of an equilibrium between bulged in and bulged out conformations in solution.
Reverse transcription of HIV-1 RNA is initiated from the 3’ end of a tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule annealed to the primer binding site (PBS). An additional interaction between the anticodon loop of tRNA(3)(Lys) and a viral A-rich loop is required for efficient initiation of reverse transcription of the HIV-1 MAL isolate. In the HIV-1 HXB2 isolate, simultaneous mutations of the PBS and the A-rich loop (mutant His-AC), but not of the PBS alone (mutant His) allows the virus to stably utilize tRNA(His) as primer. However, mutant His-AC selects additional mutations during cell culture, generating successively His-AC-GAC and His-AC-AT-GAC. Here, we wanted to establish direct relationships between the evolution of these mutants in cell culture, their efficiency in initiating reverse transcription and the structure of the primer/template complexes in vitro.
The conversion of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA by virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT) is an essential step of the retrovirus life cycle. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), RT uses the cellular tRNA(3)(Lys) to initiate the (-) strand DNA synthesis. Placement of the primer tRNA(3)(Lys) involves binding of its 3’-terminal 18 nt to a complementary region of genomic RNA termed PBS. However, the PBS sequence is not the unique determinant of primer usage and additional contacts are important. This placement is believed to be achieved in vivo by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag or by the mature protein NCp. Up to now, structural information essentially arose from heat-annealed primer-template complexes (Isel et al., J Mol Biol, 1995, 247:236-250 ; Isel et al., EMBO J, 1999, 18:1038-1048).
Over the course of its evolution, HIV-1 has taken maximum advantage of its tRNA(3)(Lys) primer by utilizing it in several steps of reverse transcription. Here, we have identified a conserved nonanucleotide sequence in the U3 region of HIV-1 RNA that is complementary to the anticodon stem of tRNA(3)(Lys). In order to test its possible role in the first strand transfer reaction, we applied an assay using a donor RNA corresponding to the 5’-part and an acceptor RNA spanning the 3’-part of HIV-1 RNA. In addition, we constructed two acceptor RNAs in which the nonanucleotide sequence complementary to tRNA(3)(Lys) was either substituted (S) or deleted (Delta).
The U3 snoRNA coding sequences from the genomic DNAs of Kluyveromyces delphensis and four variants of the Kluyveromyces marxianus species were cloned by PCR amplification. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplification products revealed a unique U3 snoRNA gene sequence in all the strains studied, except for K. marxianus var. fragilis. The K. marxianus U3 genes were intronless, whereas an intron similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae U3 genes was found in K. delphensis. Hence, U3 genes with and without intron are found in yeasts of the Saccharomycetoideae subfamily. The secondary structure of the K. delphensis pre-U3 snoRNA and of the K. marxianus mature snoRNAs were studied experimentally.
Carnobacterium piscicola CP5, isolated from a French mold-ripened soft cheese, produced a bacteriocin activity named carnocin CP5, which inhibited Carnobacterium, Enterococcus and Listeria spp. strains, and among the Lactobacillus spp. only Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. . The activity was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). This latter step separated two peaks with anti-listerial activity (CP51 and CP52). Carnocin CP51 was partially sequenced, and the N-terminal part revealed the presence of the ’’pediocin-like consensus’’ sequence-Tyr-Gly-Asn-Gly-Val-. Then, a degenerated 24-mer oligonucleotide probe was constructed from the N-terminal sequence and used to detect the structural gene. It was localized on a plasmid of about 40 kb.
The 5’ external transcribed spacer (ETS) region of the pre-rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a sequence with 10 bp of perfect complementarity to the U3 snoRNA. Base pairing between these sequences has been shown to be required for 18S rRNA synthesis, although interaction over the full in bp of complementarity is not required. We have identified the homologous sequence in the 5’ ETS from the evolutionarily distant yeast Hansenula wingei ; unexpectedly, this shows two sequence changes in the region predicted to base pair to U3. By PCR amplification and direct RNA sequencing, a single type of U3 snoRNA coding sequence was identified in H. wingei. As in the S. cerevisiae U3 snoRNA genes, it is interrupted by an intron with features characteristic of introns spliced in a spliceosome. Consequently, this unusual property is not restricted to the yeast genus Saccharomyces.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae U3 snoRNA genes contain long spliceosomal introns with noncanonical branch site sequences. By using chemical and enzymatic methods to probe the RNA secondary structure and site-directed mutagenesis, we established the complete secondary structure of the U3A snoRNA precursor. This is the first determination of the complete secondary structure of an RNA spliced in a spliceosome. The peculiar cruciform structure of the U3A snoRNA 3’-terminal region is formed in the precursor RNA and the conserved Boxes B and C are accessible for binding the U3 snoRNP proteins. The intron forms a highly folded structure with a long central stem-loop structure that brings the 5’ box and the branch site together.
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