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Hypoxia-inducing pathologies as cancer develop pathologic and inefficient angiogenesis which rules tumor facilitating microenvironment, a key target for therapy. As such, the putative ability of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) to specifically home to hypoxic sites of neovascularization prompted to design optimized, site-specific, cell-mediated, drug-/gene-targeting approach. Thus, EPC lines were established from aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) of murine 10.5 dpc and 11.5 dpc embryo when endothelial repertoire is completed. Lines representing early endothelial differentiation steps were selected : MAgEC10.5 and MagEC11.5. Distinct in maturation, they differently express VEGF receptors, VE-cadherin and chemokine/receptors. MAgEC11.5, more differentiated than MAgEC 10.5, displayed faster angiogenesis in vitro, different response to hypoxia and chemokines. Both MAgEC lines cooperated to tube-like formation with mature endothelial cells and invaded tumor spheroids through a vasculogenesis-like process. In vivo, both MAgEC-formed vessels established blood flow. Intravenously injected, both MAgECs invaded Matrigel(TM)-plugs and targeted tumors. Here we show that EPCs (MAgEC11.5) target tumor angiogenesis and allow local overexpression of hypoxia-driven soluble VEGF-receptor2 enabling drastic tumor growth reduction. We propose that such EPCs, able to target tumor angiogenesis, could act as therapeutic gene vehicles to inhibit tumor growth by vessel normalization resulting from tumor hypoxia alleviation.
The skin microenvironment is characterized by the extracellular matrix components, soluble molecules produced by neighboring cells but also physicochemical parameters and particularly a very low oxygen level (called physioxia) compared to other organs and the atmosphere. This condition is not taken into account in classical in vitro experiments, which are now replacing animal models for dermocosmetic evaluations. It is now well known that the oxygen level controls the expression of various proteins, either by induction of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), or modulation of microRNAs, which are small molecules regulating mRNA transcription. In this review, we focus on both microRNAs regulated by oxygen level and microRNAs involved in the regulation of various skin functions. We highlight the importance of this new concept of skin hysioxia and its consequences on microRNA regulation.
Polyphenols are strong antioxidant molecules allowing prevention of skin photo-ageing damages, but their use is limited due to low solubility and toxicity towards skin cells. We postulated that enzymatic glucosylation could improve their solubility, stability and, consequently, their efficacy. The aim of this work was to study changes induced by addition of a glucose moiety on two polyphenols displaying very different chemical structures [caffeic acid (CA), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and there glucosylated form, Glc-CA and Glc-EGCG] by assessing their cytotoxic properties and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Their antioxidant effect was assessed first by the classical DPPH radical-scavenging method. Then, a panel of human skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells) was used to evaluate their effect on cell toxicity and their antioxidant activities. With this aim, a photo-ageing model based on UV irradiation of skin cells was established. Molecule activity was assessed on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and, finally, on inflammatory factor production IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β.
In an acellular model, antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH method was strongly reduced for Glc-CA compared to CA, whereas it remained the same for Glc-EGCG compared to EGCG. Glucosylated derivatives did not display more toxic effect on various skin cells. Moreover, toxicity was even strongly reduced for caffeic acid upon glucosylation. The efficacy of glucosyl-compounds against UV-induced ROS production was preserved, both with pre- and post-UV treatments. Particularly, a better antioxidant efficacy was shown by Glc-EGCG, vs. EGCG, on keratinocytes. In addition, an induction of SOD and catalase activity was clearly observed for Glc-CA. Both glucosyl-polyphenols display the same activity as their parent molecule in decreasing inflammatory factor production.
Our results demonstrated that enzymatic glucosylation of CA and EGCG led to an improved or preserved antioxidant activity in a cellular model of UV-induced skin ageing, despite the decrease in instantaneous antioxidant properties observed for Glc-CA. Glc-EGCG is specifically more active on keratinocytes, suggesting a specific targeting. Such glucosylated polyphenols displaying improved physicochemical and biological properties should be better candidates than natural ones for use in food additives and cosmetics.
VEGFs are found at high levels in hypoxic tumors. As major components directing pathologic neovascularization, they regulate stromal reactions. Consequently, novel strategies targeting and inhibiting VEGF overproduction upon hypoxia offer considerable potential for modern anticancer therapies controlling rather than destroying tumor angiogenesis. Here, we report the design of a vector expressing the soluble form of VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR2) driven by a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE)-regulated promoter. To enable in vivo imaging by infrared visualization, mCherry and IFP1.4 coding sequences were built into the vector. Plasmid construction was validated through transfection into embryonic human kidney HEK293 and murine B16F10 melanoma cells. sVEGFR2 was expressed in hypoxic conditions only, confirming that the gene was regulated by the HRE promoter. sVEGFR2 was found to bind efficiently and specifically to murine and human VEGF-A, reducing the growth of tumor and endothelial cells as well as impacting angiogenesis in vitro. The hypoxia-conditioned sVEGFR2 expression was shown to be functional in vivo : Tumor angiogenesis was inhibited and, on stable transfection of B16F10 melanoma cells, tumor growth was reduced. Enhanced expression of sVEGFR2 was accompanied by a modulation in levels of VEGF-A. The resulting balance reflected the effect on tumor growth and on control of angiogenesis. A concomitant increase of intratumor oxygen tension also suggested an influence on vessel normalization. The possibility to express an angiogenesis regulator as sVEGFR2, in a hypoxia-conditioned manner, significantly opens new strategies for tumor vessel–controlled normalization and the design of adjuvants for combined cancer therapies. Mol Cancer Ther ; 13(1) ; 165–78. ©2013 AACR.
This chapter describes a short historical overview of the progress in endothelium research and point the importance of organ-selective characteristics according to the present knowledge about endothelium biology. Uncovering the advantages that the endothelial cell properties and characteristics provide for the development of future targeted therapies, the review describes why mature endothelial cells due to their organ-specificity can be useful to target diseased organs.
In the same line, endothelium properties will be exploited to make the endothelial cells a disease marker, e.g., in diabetes, stroke, cancer, inflammation, or ischemia and to provide a potential diagnostic indicator for the estimation of metastatic progression. New perspectives are thus opened by endothelial cells that can be considered both as a reporter and a target. These features can be combined with new cell-mediated and cell-targeted therapeutics designed to correct angiogenesis. Examples of such possible applications are detailed in the repair of tumor angiogenesis with help of endothelial cell precursors through their ability to target the pathologic angiogenesis and participate to normalization of the pathologic vasculature. The hypothesis that normalized angiogenesis may provide an efficient treatment, working as adjuvant to classical therapies, is being developed. The objective is to reach a mechanical stabilization that should result in an advantageous change of the tumor microenvironment.
Inefficient immune response is a major glitch during tumor growth and progression. Chaotic and leaky blood vessels created in the process of angiogenesis allow tumor cells to escape and extricate anti-cancer immunity. Proangiogenic characteristics of hypoxic tumor microenvironment maintained by low oxygen tension attract endothelial progenitor cells, drive expansion of cancer stem cells, and deviantly differentiate monocyte descendants. Such cellular milieu further boosts immune tolerance and eventually appoint immunity for cancer advantage. Blood vessel normalization strategies that equilibrate oxygen levels within tumor and fix abnormal vasculature bring exciting promises to future anticancer therapies especially when combined with conventional chemotherapy. Recently, a new group of microRNAs (miRs) engaged in angiogenesis, called angiomiRs and hypoxamiRs, emerged as new therapeutic targets in cancer. Some of those miRs were found to efficiently regulate cancer immunity and their dysregulation efficiently programs aberrant angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. The present review highlights new findings in the field of miRs proficiency to normalize aberrant angiogenesis and to restore anti-tumor immune responses.
Among innovative strategies developed for cancer treatments, gene therapies stand of great interest despite their well-known limitations in targeting, delivery, toxicity or stability. The success of any given genetherapy is highly dependent on the carrier efficiency. New approaches are often revisiting the mythic trojan horse concept to carry therapeutic nucleic acid, i.e. DNAs, RNAs or small interfering RNAs, to pathologic tumor site. Recent investigations are focusing on engineering carrying modalities to overtake the above limitations bringing new promise to cancer patients. This review describes recent advances and perspectives for gene therapies devoted to tumor treatment, taking advantage of available knowledge in biotechnology and medicine.
Tumor hypoxia is a characteristic of cancer cell growth and invasion, promoting angiogenesis, which facilitates metastasis. Oxygen delivery remains impaired because tumor vessels are anarchic and leaky, contributing to tumor cell dissemination. Counteracting hypoxia by normalizing tumor vessels in order to improve drug and radio therapy efficacy and avoid cancer stem-like cell selection is a highly challenging issue. We show here that inositol trispyrophosphate (ITPP) treatment stably increases oxygen tension and blood flow in melanoma and breast cancer syngeneic models. It suppresses hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and proangiogenic/glycolysis genes and proteins cascade. It selectively activates the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in vitro and in vivo at the endothelial cell (EC) level thus inhibiting PI3K and reducing tumor AKT phosphorylation. These mechanisms normalize tumor vessels by EC reorganization, maturation, pericytes attraction, and lowering progenitor cells recruitment in the tumor. It strongly reduces vascular leakage, tumor growth, drug resistance, and metastasis. ITPP treatment avoids cancer stem-like cell selection, multidrug resistance (MDR) activation and efficiently enhances chemotherapeutic drugs activity. These data show that counteracting tumor hypoxia by stably restoring healthy vasculature is achieved by ITPP treatment, which opens new therapeutic options overcoming hypoxia-related limitations of antiangiogenesis-restricted therapies. By achieving long-term vessels normalization, ITPP should provide the adjuvant treatment required in order to overcome the subtle definition of therapeutic windows for in vivo treatments aimed by the current strategies against angiogenesis-dependent tumors.
The skin is a multifunctional organ and a first line of defense actively protecting from environmental stress caused by injury, microbial treat, UV irradiation and environmental toxins. Diverse cutaneous cell types together with extracellular matrix elements and factors create a dynamic scene for cellular communication crucial in vital processes such as wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, immune response. Direct functional success of skin equilibrium depends on its microenvironment settings and particularly the local oxygen tension. Indeed, skin entire milieu is characterized by and highly dependent on its low oxygen tension called physioxia as emphasized in this review. In the context of skin physioxia, we review and propose here new approaches to minimize age-related changes in skin state and function. We particularly emphasize carbohydrate-mediated interactions and new 3D models of engineered skin substitutes. We highlight newly emerged tools and targets including stem cells, miRNAs, matrix metalloproteinases, mitochondria and natural antioxidants that are promising in prevention of skin ageing and disease restraint. In the era of advanced dermatology, new attempts are bringing us closer to ’well being’ perception.
Tumor microenvironment is a complex and highly dynamic milieu that provides very important clues on tumor development and progression mechanisms. Tumor-associated endothelial cells play a key role in stroma organization. They achieve tumor angiogenesis, a formation of tumor-associated (angiogenic) vessels mainly through sprouting from locally preexisting vessels and/or recruitment of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. This process participates to supply nutritional support and oxygen to the growing tumor.
Endothelial cells constitute the interface between circulating blood cells, tumor cells and the extracellular matrix, thereby controlling leukocyte recruitment, tumor cell behavior and metastasis formation.
Hypoxia, a critical parameter of the tumor microenvironment, controls endothelial/tumor cell interactions and is the key to tumor angiogenesis development. Under hypoxic stress, tumor cells produce factors that promote angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, tumor cell motility, metastasis and cancer stem cell selection.
Targeting tumor vessels is a therapeutic strategy that has lately been fast evolving from antiangiogenesis to vessel normalization as discussed in this review. We shall focus on the pivotal role of endothelial cells within the tumor microenvironment, the specific features and the part played by circulating endothelial precursors cells. Attention is stressed on their recruitment to the tumor site and their role in tumor angiogenesis where they are submitted to miRNAs-mediated de/regulation. Here the compensation of the tumor deregulated angiogenic miRNAs – angiomiRs - is emphasized as a potential therapeutic approach. The strategy is to over express anti-angiomiRs in the tumor angiogenesis site upon selective delivery by precursor endothelial cells as miRs carriers.
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) modulate postnatal vascularization and contribute to vessel regeneration in adults. Stem cells and progenitor cells were found in umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and mobilized peripheral blood cells, from where they were isolated and cultured. However, the yield of progenitor cells is usually not sufficient for clinical application and the quality of progenitor cells varies. The aim of the study was the immortalization of early progenitor cells with high proliferative potential, capable to differentiate to EPCs and, further, toward endothelial cells. Two cell lines, namely HEPC-CB. 1 and HEPC-CB. 2 (human endothelial progenitor cells-cord blood) were isolated. As assessed by specific antibody labeling and flow cytometric analysis, they express a panel of stem cell markers : CD133, CD13, CD271, CD90 and also endothelial cell markers : CD202b, CD309 (VEGFR2), CD146, CD105, and CD143 but they do not present markers of finally differentiated endothelial cells : CD31, vWf, nor CD45 which is a specific hematopoietic cell marker. Using the multiplex Cytometric Bead Assay, the simultaneous production of proangiogenic cytokines IL8, angiogenin, and VEGF was demonstrated in normoxia and was shown to be increased by hypoxia. Both cell lines, similarly as mature endothelial cells, underwent in vitro pre-angiogenic process, formed pseudovessel structures and present an accelerated angiogenesis in hypoxic conditions. To date, these are the first CD133 positive established cell lines from human cord blood cells. (C) 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Serotonin, an important neurotransmitter, is colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a homodimeric enzyme which catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO center dot) and/or oxygen species. As many interactions have been reported between the nitrergic and serotoninergic systems, we studied the effect of serotonin on nNOS activities. Our results reveal that nNOS is activated by serotonin as both NADPH consumption and oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) oxidation were enhanced. The generation of L-citrulline from L-arginine (L-Arg) was not affected by serotonin in the range of 0-200 mu M, suggesting an additional production of oxygen-derived species. But 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) induced the formation of both O-2(center dot-) and H2O2 by nNOS, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and by using specific spin traps. Overall, these results demonstrate that serotonin is able to activate nNOS, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in addition to the NO center dot production. Such a property must be considered in vivo as various nNOS-derived products mediate different signaling pathways.
The N-nitroso-derivative of tnelatonin, NOM (1-nitrosomelatonin), which has been demonstrated to be a NOcenter dot [oxidonitrogen(center dot)] donor in buffered solutions, is a new potential drug particularly in neurological diseases. The advantage of NOM, a very lipophilic drug. is its ability to release both melatonin and NOcenter dot, an easily diffusible free radical. In order to evaluate the distribution and the pharmacokinetics of NOM, [O-methyl-H-3]NOM was administered to and followed in mice. A complementary method for monitoring NOM, EPR, was performed in vitro and ex vivo with (MGD)(2)-Fe2+ (iron-N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate) complex as a spin trap.
The tetrapeptide IV-Acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP), an inhibitor of hacmatopoletic stem cell proliferation, reduces in vivo and in vitro the damage to the stein cell compartment resulting from treatment with chemotherapeutic agents or ionizing radiations. In order to provide new molecules likely to improve the myeloprotection displayed by this tetrapeptide, we have prepared a set of analogues of AcSDKP. These compounds are derived from the parent peptide by substitution or modification of the N- or of the C-terminus, or substitution of side chains.
The tetrapeptide Acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP), an inhibitor of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, is known to reduce in vivo the damage resulting from treatment with chemotherapeutic agents or ionizing radiation on the stem cell compartment, Recently, AcSDKP has been shown to be a physiological substrate of the N-active site of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), Four analogs of the tetrapeptide expressing a high stability towards ACE degradation in vitro have been synthesized in order to provide new molecules likely to improve the myeloprotection displayed by AcSDKP, These analogs are three pseudopeptides with a modified peptidic bond, Ac-Ser Psi(CH2-NH)Asp-Lys-Pro, Ac-Ser-Asp-Psi(CH2-NH)Lys-Pro, Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys Psi(CH2-N)Pro, and one C-terminus modified peptide (AcSDKP-NH2), We report here that these analogs reduce in vitro the proportion of murine colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage in S-phase and inhibit the entry into cycle of high proliferative potential colony-forming cells, The efficacy of AcSDKP analogs in preventing in vitro primitive hematopoietic stem cells from entering into cycle suggests that these molecules could be new candidates for the powerful inhibition of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell proliferation in vivo.
The tetrapeptide Acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP or Goralatide), a physiological regulator of hematopoiesis, inhibits the entry into the S-phase of murine and human hematopoietic stem cells. It has been shown to reduce the damage to specific compartments in the bone marrow resulting from treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, ionizing radiations, hyperthermy, or phototherapy. The present study was performed to assess the therapeutic potential of AcSDKP in vivo in reducing both the toxicity and the hematopoietic damage induced by fractionated administration of doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used anticancer drug. Here we showed that AcSDKP could reduce COX-induced mortality in mice and could protect particularly the long-term reconstituting cells (LTRCs) in addition to colony forming units-spleen, high proliferative potential colony-forming cells, and colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) from DOX toxicity.
Acetyl-N-SerAspLysPro (AcSDKP), known as a negative regulator of haematopoiesis, has been principally reported as an inhibitor of haematopoietic pluripotent stem cell proliferation. The tetrapeptide sequence is identical to the N-terminus of thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4), from which it has been suggested that it may be derived. Recently, evidence was shown that T beta 4 plays a role as a negative regulator of actin polymerization leading to the sequestration of its monomeric form. The structural similarity between the N-terminus of T beta 4 and AcSDKP has raised the possibility that AcSDKP may also participate in intracellular events leading to actin sequestration.
3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine (AZT), the main antiviral drug used in AIDS treatment, is known to induce anemia and neutropenia. These effects have been attributed to its toxicity to hematopoietic progenitors. In this report, we present a new approach to reduce AZT hematotoxicity by using an inhibitory factor of the hematopoietic stem cells, the tetrapeptide AcSerAspLvsPro (AcSDKP, Seraspenide), which has been shown to increase the survival of mice subjected to high doses of chemotherapy and to block reversibly the cycling of human granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) progenitors.
The present study attempts to define the difficulties in evaluating the properties of the hemoregulatory peptide AcSDKP using in vitro assays. In fact, in the presence of sera, which are generally added to basic culture media, AcSDKP is catabolized by proteases present in the serum. The kinetics of AcSDKP degradation depends on the nature and on the concentration of the added serum. In in vitro conditions, the half life of this peptide can be increased by the addition of 1 muM captopril, a metalloprotease inhibitor. Thus, these points need to be considered in designing experiments to study the effects of AcSDKP.
The comparative degradation of N-Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP), a negative regulator controlling the proliferation of the hematopoietic pluripotent stem cell, was investigated following incubation with plasma, bone marrow and spleen cells from normal mice and mice bearing a transplantable myeloid leukemia. Using the tetrapeptide, specifically radiolabelled in the lysyl residue, degradation of [H-3]AcSDKP was followed by measurement of [H-3]Lys formation resulting from its catabolism. It was shown that already after 1 h the degradation of AcSDKP in plasma from leukemic mice was higher compared to that following incubation in plasma from normal mice, whereas incubation with bone marrow cells exhibits a small difference only after 4 hours incubation. However, no increase of AcSDKP catabolic activity was observed following incubation with spleen cells from leukemic animals when compared with incubation of normal spleen cells.
Suppression of the immune response, which involves suppressor factors released from specialized T cells, is inhibited by a-L-rhamnose. In this paper, we show the presence of rhamnose-specific receptors on a human CD8+ T cell-rich population and describe a novel method to isolate cells which express a given sugar-binding protein on their surface. We describe the isolation of a-L-rhamnose-specific molecules (rhamnose-binding fractions : RBF) from a water-soluble extract from lymphocytes, their purification by affinity chromatography on immobilized neoglycoproteins containing rhamnose residues. RBF kept their ability to bind rhamnose, as shown by the binding of fluorescein-labeled RBF to rhamnosylated BSA-substituted beads. RBF efficiently suppresses DNA synthesis of mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes as well as B cell immunoglobulin production. Therefore, these rhamnose-binding molecules appear to be antigen-independent suppressor factors.
In an attempt to identify cell surface molecules involved in recognition phenomena between cells such as keratinocytes and melanocytes and putatively target biological responses modifiers to keratinocytes, we undertook the detection of cell surface sugar specific receptors : membrane lectins. Keratinocyte membrane lectins were found to bind synthetic glycoproteins (neoglycoproteins) carrying either a-L-fucosyl or a-L-rhamnosyl residues. Fluorescence microscopy observations indicate that cultured keratinocytes are able to bind these two neoglycoproteins while frozen sections of human skin labelled with neoglycoprotein-coated covaspheres show that the selectivity of the binding to keratinocytes is restricted to a-L-rhamnosyl-BSA.
Surface lectins, specific for given sugar structures, are expressed on human T cells, as shown by flow cytofluorometry using F-neoglycoproteins bearing either ß- and a-D-galactosyl, ß-D-galactosyl 6-phosphate, or a-L-rhamnosyl groups, but not by F-neoglycoproteins bearing other sugar groups (such as a-D-mannosyl groups). After stimulation with Phaseolus vulgaris mitogen, the number of cells that bind ß-D-galactosyl 6-phosphate groups (6-P-ß-D-Galp lec+ cells) increased fourfold during the first five days ; these cells are helper (CD4+) T cells. Conversely, cells that bind a-L-Rha groups belong to the T suppressor (CD8+) family and their number moderately increased. Upon stimulation by concanavalin A, the number of cells expressing the lectin recognizing a-L-Rha groups increased during the first two days and then decreased within the next two days. These results are discussed with regard to the implication of lymphocyte membrane lectins in the suppressor mechanism and in the homing process.
This paper presents the characterization of a sugar-specific receptor on the surface of human circulating polymorphonuclear cells. With the help of fluorescent neoglycoproteins and flow cytometry, a receptor was identified as being specific for .a.-L-rhamnosyl residues. The number of receptors was 55 000/cell and their affinity reached 2 .times. 108 1 mol-1. This number changes as a function of the biological state of the cells. Indeed, receptor expression was modulated by the presence of other cells. T cells and B cells increased the number of receptors on the granulocyte surface. Expression of the .a.-L-rhamnose-specific lectin was dependent on lymphocyte derived soluble factor(s), which induce(s) growth and differentiation of polymorphonuclear phagocytes. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) specifically produced a significant increase in the number of receptors for .a.-L-rhamnose (2-10-fold/cell). This modulation was independent of protein kinase C activators such as phorbol ester, which produced no effect on .a.-L-rhamnose receptor expression. These findings demonstrate that GM-CSF may stimulate post differentiation functions and properties of mature granulocytes.
Chargé de recherche , Microenvironnement cellulaire et cibles pharmacologiques