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Novel magneto-plasmonic nanoprobes were designed for multimodal diagnosis of cancer by combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS), and fluorescence emission in the very near infrared (VNIR). A controlled electrostatic assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanopartides (SPIONs), VNIR dye Nile Blue (NB), and biopolymer chitosan (Chi) was used to formulate the AgIONs-Chi nanoprobes. The formulation protocol did not involve organic solvents and was rapid and efficient as confirmed by magnetic sorting. The SERRS response of the nanoprobes was very intense and constant for days. It decreased linearly upon 1000-fold dilution and was still recognizable at 0.1 nM NB concentration. After 30 days of storage, the SERRS loss was less than 30% and the hydrodynamic size of the AgIONs-Chi in PBS remained below 200 nm. The gradual decrease of the ratio SERRS/fluorescence allowed one to monitor the release of the fluorescent molecule upon long-term nanoprobe dissociation. The AgIONs-Chi exhibited 2-fold higher MRI contrast than that of commercially available SPION suspensions. Finally, the nanoprobes were actively uptaken by HeLa cancer cells and ensured trimodal MRI-SERRS-fluorescence detection of 10 itL cell inclusions in cm-sized agarose gels used here as phantom models of microtumors. The above results show that the magneto-plasmonic AgIONs-Chi are promising substrates for SERRS analysis in solution and for multimodal imaging of cancer cells.
We have developed new methods enabling in vivo localization and identification of metabolites through their (1)H NMR signatures, in a drosophila. Metabolic profiles in localized regions were obtained using HR-MAS Slice Localized Spectroscopy and Chemical Shift Imaging at high magnetic fields. These methods enabled measurement of metabolite contents in anatomic regions of the fly, demonstrated by a decrease in beta-alanine signals in the thorax of flies showing muscle degeneration.
Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches that detect biomarkers associated with neural activity would allow more direct observation of brain function than current functional MRI based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast. Our objective was to create a synthetic molecular platform with appropriate recognition moieties for zwitterionic neurotransmitters that generate an MR signal change upon neurotransmitter binding. The gadolinium complex (GdL) we report offers ditopic binding for zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters, via interactions (i) between the positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated metal center and the carboxylate function and (ii) between a triazacrown ether and the amine group of the neurotransmitters. GdL discriminates zwitterionic neurotransmitters from monoamines. Neurotransmitter binding leads to a remarkable relaxivity change, related to a decrease in hydration number. GdL was successfully used to monitor neural activity in ex vivo mouse brain slices by MRI.
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is also associated with autism spectrum disorders. Previous studies implicated BKCa channels in the neuropathogenesis of FXS, but the main question was whether pharmacological BKCa stimulation would be able to rescue FXS neurobehavioral phenotypes.
METHODS AND RESULTS :
We used a selective BKCa channel opener molecule (BMS-204352) to address this issue in Fmr1 KO mice, modeling the FXS pathophysiology. In vitro, acute BMS-204352 treatment (10muM) restored the abnormal dendritic spine phenotype. In vivo, a single injection of BMS-204352 (2mg/kg) rescued the hippocampal glutamate homeostasis and the behavioral phenotype. Indeed, disturbances in social recognition and interaction, non-social anxiety, and spatial memory were corrected by BMS-204352 in Fmr1 KO mice.
These results demonstrate that the BKCa channel is a new therapeutic target for FXS. We show that BMS-204352 rescues a broad spectrum of behavioral impairments (social, emotional and cognitive) in an animal model of FXS. This pharmacological molecule might open new ways for FXS therapy.
In the present study we investigated structural and metabolic modifications of the brain in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome(DS)using both in vivo magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(MRS). MRI was performed for further texture analysis and changes in texture parameters, including mean grey levels, contrast and homogeneity, and they were found in Ts65Dn compared to diploid littermates (2n). These phenotypic changes were different in the hippocampus and cerebellum, since in Ts65Dn mean grey levels increased in the cerebellum and decreased in the hippocampus. In addition, proton NMR spectra revealed differences in metabolite ratios. Levels of N-acetylaspartate(NAA)and glutamate(Glu), were lower compared to total creatine levels (CX), in the Ts65Dn brain. However, the most striking finding was an increase in the concentration of myo-inositol(Ins)and choline(Cho)in the hippocampus, whereas the Ins concentration was reduced in the cerebellum. Overall, these data illustrate that MRI and MRS are valuable assesment tools sufficiently sensitive to detect associated changes in different brain areas, thus providing new insight into the causative role of dosage-sensitive genes in the Ts65Dn DS mouse model.
PCP4/PEP19 is a modulator of Ca2 +-CaM signaling. In the brain, it is expressed in a very specific pattern in postmitotic neurons. In particular, Pcp4 is highly expressed in the Purkinje cell, the sole output neuron of the cerebellum. PCP4, located on human chromosome 21, is present in three copies in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). In a previous study using a transgenic mouse model (TgPCP4) to evaluate the consequences of 3 copies of this gene, we found that PCP4 overexpression induces precocious neuronal differentiation during mouse embryogenesis. Here, we report combined analyses of the cerebellum at postnatal stages (P14 and adult) in which we identified age-related molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral alterations in the TgPCP4 mouse. While Pcp4 overexpression at P14 induces an earlier neuronal maturation, at adult stage it induces increase in cerebellar CaMK2alpha and in cerebellar LTD, as well as learning impairments. We therefore propose that PCP4 contributes significantly to the development of Down syndrome phenotypes through molecular and functional changes.
Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Although T-cell activation and type II IFN-gamma are required for Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-induced murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), the role of type I IFN-alpha/beta in ECM development remains unclear. Here, we address the role of the IFN-alpha/beta pathway in ECM devel-opment in response to hepatic or blood-stage PbA infection, using mice deficient for types I or II IFN receptors. While IFN-gammaR1(-)/(-) mice were fully resistant, IFNAR1(-)/(-) mice showed delayed and partial protection to ECM after PbA infection. ECM resistance in IFN-gammaR1(-)/(-) mice correlated with unaltered cerebral microcirculation and absence of ischemia, while WT and IFNAR1(-)/(-) mice developed distinct microvascular pathologies. ECM resistance appeared to be independent of parasitemia. Instead, key mediators of ECM were attenuated in the absence of IFNAR1, including PbA-induced brain sequestration of CXCR3(+)-activated CD8(+) T cells. This was associated with reduced expression of Granzyme B, IFN-gamma, IL-12Rbeta2, and T-cell-attracting chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in IFNAR1(-)/(-) mice, more so in the absence of IFN-gammaR1. Therefore, the type I IFN-alpha/beta receptor pathway contributes to brain T-cell responses and microvascular pathology, although it is not as essential as IFN-gamma for the development of cerebral malaria upon hepatic or blood-stage PbA infection.
In preclinical research, genetic studies have made considerable progress as a result of the development of transgenic animal models of human diseases. Consequently, there is now a need for higher resolution MRI to provide finer details for studies of small animals (rats, mice) or very small animals (insects). One way to address this issue is to work with high-magnetic-field spectrometers (dedicated to small animal imaging) with strong magnetic field gradients. It is also necessary to develop a complete methodology (transmit/receive coil, pulse sequence, fixing system, air supply, anesthesia capabilities, etc.). In this study, we developed noninvasive protocols, both in vitro and in vivo (from coil construction to image generation), for drosophila MRI at 9.4 T. The 10*10*80-μm resolution makes it possible to visualize whole drosophila (head, thorax, abdomen) and internal organs (ovaries, longitudinal and transverse muscles, bowel, proboscis, antennae and optical lobes). We also provide some results obtained with a Drosophila model of muscle degeneration. This opens the way for new applications of structural genetic modification studies using MRI of drosophila.
In this paper, a semi automatic method is proposed for the segmentation of mice cerebral structures (brain, cerebellum and hippocampus) in MR images. First, a Chan-Vese method is applied on the axial images to segment the brain volume. The method takes into account the special shape of the brain mice. Second, variational atlases are constructed by manual segmentation of various MRI brain images of reference and Trisomy 21 mice. These atlases are then registered on true data to assist the Chan-Vese segmentation of the cerebellum and the hippocampus. This semi automatic method makes that human intervention is limited and the tedious manual handling is greatly reduced. Results have shown that the brain volumes estimated by the method are identical to expert manually estimated volumes. The new method was used in the analysis of the cerebral malformations linked to Trisomy 21 : no significant difference of the cerebral structures between Trisomy 21 mice and the control ones was found.
A Th1 response is required for the development of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The role of pro-Th1 IL-12 in malaria is complex and controversial. In this study, we addressed the role of IL-12R beta 2 in ECM development. C57BL/6 mice deficient for IL-12R beta 2, IL-12p40, or IL-12p35 were analyzed for ECM development after blood-stage PbA infection in terms of ischemia and blood flow by noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, T cell recruitment, and gene expression. Without IL-12R beta 2, no neurologic sign of ECM developed upon PbA infection. Although wildtype mice developed distinct brain microvascular pathology, ECM-resistant, IL-12R beta 2-deficient mice showed unaltered cerebral microcirculation and the absence of ischemia after PbA infection. In contrast, mice deficient for IL-12p40 or IL-12p35 were sensitive to ECM development. The resistance of IL-12R beta 2-deficient mice to ECM correlated with reduced recruitment of activated T cells and impaired overexpression of lymphotoxin-alpha, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in the brain after PbA infection. Therefore, IL-12R beta 2 signaling is essential for ECM development but independent from IL-12p40 and IL-12p35. We document a novel link between IL-12R beta 2 and lymphotoxin-alpha, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma expression, key cytokines for ECM pathogenesis.
The benefit of impact-loading activity for bone strength depends on whether the additional bone mineral content (BMC) accrued at loaded sites is due to an increased bone size, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) or both. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the airn of this study was to characterize the geometric changes of the dominant radius in response to long-term tennis playing and to assess the influence of muscle forces on bone tissue by investigating the muscle-bone relationship. Twenty tennis players (10 men and 10 women, mean age : 23.1 +/- 4.7 years, with 14.3 +/- 3.4 years of playing) were recruited. The total bone volume, cortical volume, sub-cortical volume and muscle volume were measured at both distal radii by MRI. BMC was assessed by DXA and was divided by the total bone volume to derive vBMD.
Recent developments in high-resolution MR imaging techniques have opened up new perspectives for structural characterization of trabecular bone by non-invasive methods. In this study, 3-D MR imaging was performed on 17 healthy volunteers and 6 osteoporotic patients. Two different MR sequences were used to evaluate the impact on MR acquisition on texture analysis results. Images were analyzed with four automated methods of texture analysis (grey level histogram, cooccurrence, runlength and gradient matrices) enabling quantitative analysis of grey level intensity and distribution within three different regions of interest (ROI).
Texture analysis was performed in three different MRI units on T1 and T2-weighted MR images from 10 healthy volunteers and 63 patients with histologically confirmed intracranial tumors. The goal of this study was a multicenter evaluation of the usefulness of this quantitative approach for the characterization of healthy and pathologic human brain tissues (white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, tumors and edema). Each selected brain region of interest was characterized with both its mean gray level values and several texture parameters.
Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) has been reported to be helpful for the differential diagnosis between abscesses and cystic/necrotic brain tumors. However the number of patients is still limited, and the sensitivity and specificity of the method remain to be confirmed. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate a larger sample of patients, all investigated under the same experimental conditions, in order to obtain statistically significant data. Moreover, there is no consensus about the appropriate values of b required to use to make an accurate diagnosis from DWI.
Automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) texture analysis was compared with visual MRT analysis for the diagnosis of skeletal muscle dystrophy in 14 healthy and 17 diseased subjects. MRI texture analysis was performed on 8 muscle regions of interest (ROI) using four statistical methods (histogram, co-occurrence matrix, gradient matrix, runlength matrix) and one structural (mathematical morphology) method. Nine senior radiologists assessed full leg transverse slice images and proposed a diagnosis. The 59 extracted texture parameters for each ROI were statistically analyzed by Correspondence Factorial Analysis, Non-parametric tests,were used to compare diagnoses based on automated texture analysis and visual analysis. Texture analysis methods discriminated between healthy volunteers and patients with a sensitivity of 70%, and a specificity of 86%, Comparison with visual analysis of MR images suggests that texture analysis can provide useful information contributing to the diagnosis of skeletal muscle disease. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.
Chargé de recherche , IRM, signaux, images et expression des gènes