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Trappin-2 is a serine protease inhibitor with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum and has significant anti-microbial activities. It is a 10 kDa cationic protein composed of two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain (38 residues) named cementoin is known to be intrinsically disordered when it is not linked to the elafin. The C-terminal domain (57 residues), corresponding to elafin, is a cysteine-rich domain stabilized by four disulfide bridges and is characterized by a flat core and a flexible N-terminal part. To our knowledge, there is no structural data available on trappin-2. We report here the complete 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignment of the recombinant trappin-2 and the 1H assignments of cementoin and elafin, under the same experimental conditions. This is the first step towards the 3D structure determination of the trappin-2.
The nucleoid-associated protein HU is involved in numerous DNA transactions and thus is essential in DNA maintenance and bacterial survival. The high affinity of HU for SSBs (single-strand breaks) has suggested its involvement in DNA protection, repair and recombination. SSB-containing DNA are major intermediates transiently generated by bifunctional DNA N-glycosylases that initiate the BER (base excision repair) pathway. Enzyme kinetics and DNA-binding experiments demonstrate that HU enhances the 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase activity of Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) by facilitating the release of the enzyme from its final DNA product (one nucleoside gap). We propose that the displacement of Fpg from its end-DNA product by HU is an active mechanism in which HU recognizes the product when it is still bound by Fpg. Through DNA binding, the two proteins interplay to form a transient ternary complex Fpg/DNA/HU which results in the release of Fpg and the molecular entrapment of SSBs by HU. These results support the involvement of HU in BER in vivo.
HU is one of the major nucleoid-associated proteins involved in bacterial chromosome structure and in all DNA-dependent cellular activities. Similarly to eukaryotic histones, this small dimeric basic protein wraps DNA in a non-sequence specific manner, promoting DNA super-structures. In most bacteria, HU is a homodimeric protein encoded by a single gene. However, in enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, the presence of two genes coding for two peptidic chains, HUα and HUβ, lead to the coexistence of three forms : two homodimers EcHUα2 and EcHUβ2, as well as a heterodimer EcHUαβ. Genetic and biochemical investigation suggest that each EcHU dimer plays a specific physiological role in bacteria. Their relative abundance depends on the environmental conditions and is driven by an essential, yet unknown, fast outstanding chain-exchange mechanism at physiological temperature. Our goal is to understand this fundamental mechanism from a structural and kinetics standpoint using NMR. For this purpose, the first steps are the assignment of each dimer in their native and intermediate states. Here, we report the backbone assignment of each HU dimers from E. coli at 293 K in their native state.
In the track of new biopesticides, four genes namely cytA, cytB, cytC and cytD encoding proteins homologous to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt toxins have been identified in the plant pathogenic bacteria Dickeya dadantii genome. Here we show that three Cyt-like δ-endotoxins from D. dadantii (CytA, CytB and CytC) are toxic to the pathogen of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum in terms of both mortality and growth rate. The phylogenetic analysis of the comprehensive set of Cyt toxins available in genomic databases shows that the whole family is of limited taxonomic occurrence, though in quite diverse microbial taxa. From a structure-function perspective the 3D structure of CytC and its backbone dynamics in solution have been determined by NMR. CytC adopts a cytolysin fold, structurally classified as a Cyt2-like protein. Moreover, the identification of a putative lipid binding pocket in CytC structure, which has been probably maintained in most members of the Cyt-toxin family, could support the importance of this lipid binding cavity for the mechanism of action of the whole family. This integrative approach provided significant insights into the evolutionary and functional history of D. dadantii Cyt toxins, which appears to be interesting leads for biopesticides.
MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55 in laboratory growth conditions and is structurally unrelated to other DNA-binding proteins. MC1 functions are to shape and to protect DNA against thermal denaturation by binding to it. Therefore, MC1 has a strong affinity for any double-stranded DNA. However, it recognizes and preferentially binds to bent DNA, such as four-way junctions and negatively supercoiled DNA minicircles. Combining NMR data, electron microscopy data, biochemistry, molecular modelisation and docking approaches, we proposed recently a new type of DNA/protein complex, in which the monomeric protein MC1 binds on the concave side of a strongly bent 15 base pairs DNA. We present here the NMR chemical shifts assignments of each partner in the complex, 1H 15N MC1 protein and 1H 13C 15N bent duplex DNA, as first step towards the first experimental 3D structure of this new type of DNA/protein complex.
Plant defensins (PDF) are cysteine-rich peptides that are major actors in the innate immunity in plants. Besides their antifungal activity, some PDF such as Arabidopsis halleri PDF1.1b confer zinc tolerance in plants. Here we present (i) an efficient protocol for the production of AhPDF1.1b by solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by controlled oxidative folding to obtain the highly pure native form of the defensin and (ii) the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance structure of AhPDF1.1b, the first 3D structure of plant defensin obtained with a synthetic peptide. Its fold is organized around the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix ?-sheet motif and contains the ?-core motif involved in the antifungal activity of all plant defensins. On the basis of our structural analysis of AhPDF1 defensins combined with previous biological data for antifungal and zinc tolerance activities, we established the essential role of cis-Pro41 within the ?-core. In fact, the four consecutive residues (Val39-Phe40-Pro41-Ala42) are strictly conserved for plant defensins able to tolerate zinc. We hypothesized that structural and/or dynamic features of this sequence are related to the ability of the defensin to chelate zinc.
In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1) from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.
In non-specific lac headpiece-DNA complexes selective NMR line broadening is observed that strongly depends on length and composition of the DNA fragments. This broadening involves amide protons found in the non-specific lac-DNA structure to be interacting with the DNA phosphate backbone, and can be ascribed to DNA sliding of the protein along the DNA. This NMR exchange broadening has been used to estimate the 1D diffusion constant for sliding along non-specific DNA. The observed 1D diffusion constant of 4×10-12 cm2/s is two orders of magnitude smaller than derived from previous kinetic experiments, but falls in the range of values determined more recently using single molecule methods. This strongly supports the notion that sliding could play at most a minor role in the association kinetics of binding of lac repressor to lac operator and that other processes such as hopping and intersegment transfer contribute to facilitate the DNA recognition process.
The histone-like HU protein is the major nucleoid-associated protein involved in the dynamics and structure of the bacterial chromosome. Under physiological conditions, the three possible dimeric forms of the E. coli HU protein (EcHUα₂, EcHUβ₂, and EcHUαβ) are in thermal equilibrium between two dimeric conformations (N₂ ↔ I₂) varying in their secondary structure content. High-temperature molecular dynamics simulations combined with NMR experiments provide information about structural and dynamics features at the atomic level for the N₂ to I₂ thermal transition of the EcHUβ₂ homodimer. On the basis of these data, a realistic 3D model is proposed for the major I₂ conformation of EcHUβ₂. This model is in agreement with previous experimental data.
Maître de conférences , RMN des biomolécules