van der Sluijs, J. P. Amaral-Rogers, V. Belzunces, L. P. Bijleveld van Lexmond, M. F. I. J. Bonmatin, J. M. Chagnon, M. Downs, C. A. Furlan, L. Gibbons, D. W. Giorio, C. Girolami, V. Goulson, D. Kreutzweiser, D. P. Krupke, C. Liess, M. Long, E. McField, M. Mineau, P. Mitchell, E. A. D. Morrissey, C. A. Noome, D. A. Pisa, L. Settele, J. Simon-Delso, N. Stark, J. D. Tapparo, A. Van Dyck, H. van Praagh, J. Whitehorn, P. R. Wiemers, M.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2015) 22 (1) 148-154 - doi : 10.1007/s11356-014-3229-5
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The side effects of the current global use of pesticides on wildlife, particularly at higher levels of biological organization : populations, communities and ecosystems, are poorly understood (Köhler and Triebskorn 2013). Here, we focus on one of the problematic groups of agrochemicals, the systemic insecticides fipronil and those of the neonicotinoid family. The increasing global reliance on the partly prophylactic use of these persistent and potent neurotoxic systemic insecticides has raised concerns about their impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services provided by a wide range of affected species and environments. The present scale of use, combined with the properties of these compounds, has resulted in widespread contamination of agricultural soils, freshwater resources, wetlands, non-target vegetation and estuarine and coastal marine systems, which means that many organisms inhabiting these habitats are being repeatedly and chronically expose.