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The nucleoid-associated protein HU is involved in numerous DNA transactions and thus is essential in DNA maintenance and bacterial survival. The high affinity of HU for SSBs (single-strand breaks) has suggested its involvement in DNA protection, repair and recombination. SSB-containing DNA are major intermediates transiently generated by bifunctional DNA N-glycosylases that initiate the BER (base excision repair) pathway. Enzyme kinetics and DNA-binding experiments demonstrate that HU enhances the 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase activity of Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) by facilitating the release of the enzyme from its final DNA product (one nucleoside gap). We propose that the displacement of Fpg from its end-DNA product by HU is an active mechanism in which HU recognizes the product when it is still bound by Fpg. Through DNA binding, the two proteins interplay to form a transient ternary complex Fpg/DNA/HU which results in the release of Fpg and the molecular entrapment of SSBs by HU. These results support the involvement of HU in BER in vivo.
The bacterial transcription termination factor Rho—a ring-shaped molecular motor displaying directional, ATP-dependent RNA helicase/translocase activity—is an interesting therapeutic target. Recently, Rho from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbRho) has been proposed to operate by a mechanism uncoupled from molecular motor action, suggesting that the manner used by Rho to dissociate transcriptional complexes is not conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom. Here, however, we demonstrate that MtbRho is a bona fide molecular motor and directional helicase which requires a catalytic site competent for ATP hydrolysis to disrupt RNA duplexes or transcription elongation complexes. Moreover, we show that idiosyncratic features of the MtbRho enzyme are conferred by a large, hydrophilic insertion in its N-terminal ‘RNA binding’ domain and by a non-canonical R-loop residue in its C-terminal ‘motor’ domain. We also show that the ‘motor’ domain of MtbRho has a low apparent affinity for the Rho inhibitor bicyclomycin, thereby contributing to explain why M. tuberculosis is resistant to this drug. Overall, our findings support that, in spite of adjustments of the Rho motor to specific traits of its hosting bacterium, the basic principles of Rho action are conserved across species and could thus constitute pertinent screening criteria in high-throughput searches of new Rho inhibitors.
Transcription termination factor Rho is a ring-shaped, homo-hexamieric RNA translocase that dissociates transcription elongation complexes and transcriptional RNA-DNA duplexes (R-loops) in bacteria. The molecular mechanisms underlying these biological functions have been essentially studied with Rho enzymes from Escherichia coli or close Gram-negative relatives. However, phylo-divergent Rho factors may have distinct properties. Here, we describe methods for the preparation and in vitro characterization (ATPase and helicase activities) of the Rho factor from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a specimen with uncharacteristic molecular and enzymatic features. These methods set the stage for future studies aimed at better defining the diversity of enzymatic properties of Rho across the bacterial kingdom.
HU is one of the major nucleoid-associated proteins involved in bacterial chromosome structure and in all DNA-dependent cellular activities. Similarly to eukaryotic histones, this small dimeric basic protein wraps DNA in a non-sequence specific manner, promoting DNA super-structures. In most bacteria, HU is a homodimeric protein encoded by a single gene. However, in enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, the presence of two genes coding for two peptidic chains, HUα and HUβ, lead to the coexistence of three forms : two homodimers EcHUα2 and EcHUβ2, as well as a heterodimer EcHUαβ. Genetic and biochemical investigation suggest that each EcHU dimer plays a specific physiological role in bacteria. Their relative abundance depends on the environmental conditions and is driven by an essential, yet unknown, fast outstanding chain-exchange mechanism at physiological temperature. Our goal is to understand this fundamental mechanism from a structural and kinetics standpoint using NMR. For this purpose, the first steps are the assignment of each dimer in their native and intermediate states. Here, we report the backbone assignment of each HU dimers from E. coli at 293 K in their native state.
DNA glycosylases from the Fpg/Nei structural superfamily are base excision repair enzymes involved in the removal of a wide variety of mutagen and potentially lethal oxidized purines and pyrimidines. Although involved in genome stability, the recent discovery of synthetic lethal relationships between DNA glycosylases and other pathways highlights the potential of DNA glycosylase inhibitors for future medicinal chemistry development in cancer therapy. By combining biochemical and structural approaches, the physical target of 2-thioxanthine (2TX), an uncompetitive inhibitor of Fpg, was identified. 2TX interacts with the zinc finger (ZnF) DNA binding domain of the enzyme. This explains why the zincless hNEIL1 enzyme is resistant to 2TX. Crystal structures of the enzyme bound to DNA in the presence of 2TX demonstrate that the inhibitor chemically reacts with cysteine thiolates of ZnF and induces the loss of zinc. The molecular mechanism by which 2TX inhibits Fpg may be generalized to all prokaryote and eukaryote ZnF-containing Fpg/Nei-DNA glycosylases. Cell experiments show that 2TX can operate in cellulo on the human Fpg/Nei DNA glycosylases. The atomic elucidation of the determinants for the interaction of 2TX to Fpg provides the foundation for the future design and synthesis of new inhibitors with high efficiency and selectivity.
In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1) from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.
Rap1 is an essential DNA-binding factor from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in transcription and telomere maintenance. Its binding to DNA targets Rap1 at particular loci, and may optimize its ability to form functional macromolecular assemblies. It is a modular protein, rich in large potentially unfolded regions, and comprising BRCT, Myb and RCT well-structured domains. Here, we present the architectures of Rap1 and a Rap1/DNA complex, built through a step-by-step integration of small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance data. Our results reveal Rap1 structural adjustment upon DNA binding that involves a specific orientation of the C-terminal (RCT) domain with regard to the DNA binding domain (DBD). Crystal structure of DBD in complex with a long DNA identifies an essential wrapping loop, which constrains the orientation of the RCT and affects Rap1 affinity to DNA. Based on our structural information, we propose a model for Rap1 assembly at telomere.
The transcriptional activator RamA is involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) by increasing expression of the AcrAB-TolC RND-type efflux system in several pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), ramA expression is negatively regulated at the local level by RamR, a transcriptional repressor of the TetR family. We here studied the DNA-binding activity of the RamR repressor with the ramA promoter (P(ramA)). As determined by high-resolution footprinting, the 28-bp-long RamR binding site covers essential features of P(ramA), including the -10 conserved region, the transcriptional start site of ramA, and two 7-bp inverted repeats. Based on the RamR footprint and on electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), we propose that RamR interacts with P(ramA) as a dimer of dimers, in a fashion that is structurally similar to the QacR-DNA binding model. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements indicated that RamR has a 3-fold-lower affinity (K(D) [equilibrium dissociation constant] = 191 nM) for the 2-bp-deleted P(ramA) of an MDR S. Typhimurium clinical isolate than for the wild-type P(ramA) (K(D) = 66 nM). These results confirm the direct regulatory role of RamR in the repression of ramA transcription and precisely define how an alteration of its binding site can give rise to an MDR phenotype.
The histone-like HU protein is the major nucleoid-associated protein involved in the dynamics and structure of the bacterial chromosome. Under physiological conditions, the three possible dimeric forms of the E. coli HU protein (EcHUα₂, EcHUβ₂, and EcHUαβ) are in thermal equilibrium between two dimeric conformations (N₂ ↔ I₂) varying in their secondary structure content. High-temperature molecular dynamics simulations combined with NMR experiments provide information about structural and dynamics features at the atomic level for the N₂ to I₂ thermal transition of the EcHUβ₂ homodimer. On the basis of these data, a realistic 3D model is proposed for the major I₂ conformation of EcHUβ₂. This model is in agreement with previous experimental data.
Formation of specific complexes between proteins and their cognate DNA modulates the yields and the location of radiation damage on both partners of the complex. The radiolysis of DNA-protein complexes is studied for : (1) the Escherichia coli lactose operator-repressor complex, (2) the complex between DNA bearing an analogue of an abasic site and the repair protein Fpg of Lactococcus lactis. Experimental patterns of DNA damages are presented and compared to predicted damage distribution obtained using an improved version of the stochastic model RADACK. The same method is used for predicting the location of damages on the proteins. At doses lower than a threshold that depends on the system, proteins protect their specific binding site on DNA while at high doses, the studied complexes are disrupted mainly through protein damage. The loss of binding ability is the functional consequence of the amino-acids modification by OH radicals. Many of the most probably damaged amino acids are essential for the DNA-protein interaction and within a complex are protected by DNA.
Bromine-modified oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were fragmented in the electrospray source to study the influence of brominated bases on fragmentation. Several 13-mer ODNs containing a brominated pyrimidine base, BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) or BrdC (5-bromodeoxycytidine), were analyzed. Low cone voltage fragmentation yields a loss of the brominated base with a preferential loss for the brominated base closer to the 5-end (2-position > 4-position > 12-position) as well as a preferential loss of BrdU over BrdC. Higher cone voltage produces backbone fragmentation with complementary a(n)-base and w(m) ions close to the brominated base. On the basis of these observations, we located the brominated base in the sequence for all of the ODNs studied. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
We discuss here modifications of DNA and protein radiolysis due to the interaction of the-se two partners in specific complexes. Experimental patterns of frank strand breaks (FSB) and alkali revealed breaks (ARB) obtained for DNNA lac operator bound to the lac repressor and for a DNA containing an abasic site analog bound to the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase are reported. Experimental data are compared to predicted damage distribution obtained using the theoretical model RADACK. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dFpg is a DNA glycosylase that recognizes and excises the mutagenic 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and the potentially lethal formamidopyrimidic residues (Fapy). Fpg is also associated with an AP lyase activity which successively cleaves the abasic (AP) site at the 3’ and 5’ sides by ß delta-elimination. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the wild-type and the P1G defective mutant of Fpg from Lactococcus lactis bound to 14mer DNA duplexes containing either a tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-propanediol (Pr) AP site analogues.
During the base excision repair of certain DNA lesions, the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) binds specifically to the DNA region containing an abasic (AP) site. Is this step affected by exposure to ionizing radiation ? To answer this question, we studied a complex between a DNA duplex containing an analogue of an abasic site (the 1,3-propanediol site, Pr) and a mutated Lactococcus lactis Fpg (PIG-LlFpg) lacking strand cleavage activity. Upon irradiation of the complex, the ratio of bound/free partners decreased. When the partners were irradiated separately, the irradiated DNA still bound the unirradiated protein, whereas irradiated Fpg no longer bound unirradiated DNA.
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) is a DNA repair enzyme that excises oxidized purines such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) from damaged DNA. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Fpg protein from Lactococcus lactis (LlFpg) bound to a carbocyclic FapydG (cFapydG)-containing DNA.
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) identifies and removes 8-oxoguanine from DNA. All of the X-ray structures of Fpg complexed to an abasic site containing DNA exhibit a common disordered region present in the C-terminal domain of the enzyme. However, this region is believed to be involved in the damaged base binding site when the initial protein/DNA complex is formed. The dynamic behavior of the disordered polypeptide (named Loop) in relation to the supposed scenario for the DNA repair mechanism was investigated by molecular dynamics on different models, derived from the X-ray structure of Lactococcus lactis Fpg bound to an abasic site analog-containing DNA and of Bacillus stearothermophilus Fpg bound to 8-oxoG.
Several purine and pyrimidine cyclonucleosides were found to be not recognized by several Escherichia coli and yeast DNA N-glycosylases. Interestingly, a non covalent complex was observed between the Lactoccocus lactis formamido-pyrimidine-DNA glycosylases (Fpg-L1) and the cyclonucleosides. This may provide new information on the mechanism involved in the activity of the latter enzyme.
The Escherichia coli histone-like HU protein pool is composed of three dimeric forms : two homodimers, EcHUa(2) and EcHUß(2), and a heterodimer, EcHUaß. The relative abundance of these dimeric forms varies during cell growth and in response to environmental changes, suggesting that each dimer plays different physiological roles.
For protein-DNA complex crystallization, the choice of the DNA fragment is crucial. With the aim of crystallizing the 31 kDa Fpg DNA-repair enzyme bound to DNA, oligonucleotide duplexes varying in length, sequence, end type and nature of the specific DNA target site were used. Crystals of several protein-DNA combinations grew from solutions containing both polyethylene glycol and salt. This systematic crystallization screening followed by optimization of the crystallization conditions by microseeding led to crystals of Fpg bound to a 13 base-pair duplex DNA carrying the 1,3-propanediol abasic site analogue which are suitable for crystallographic analysis. Complete native data sets have been collected to 2.1 Angstrom resolution.
The formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg, MutM) is a bifunctional base excision repair enzyme (DNA glycosylase/AP lyase) that removes a wide range of oxidized purines, such as 8-oxoguanine and imidazole ring-opened purines, from oxidatively damaged DNA. The structure of a non-covalent complex between the Lactoccocus lactis Fpg and a 1,3-propanediol (Pr) abasic site analogue-containing DNA has been solved. Through an asymmetric interaction along the damaged strand and the intercalation of the triad (M75/R109/F111), Fpg pushes out the Pr site from the DNA double helix, recognizing the cytosine opposite the lesion and inducing a 60degrees bend of the DNA.
The Ogg1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to a family of DNA glycosylases and apurinic/apyrimidinic site (AP) lyases, the signature of which is the a-helix-hairpin-a-helix-Gly/Pro-Asp (HhH-GPD) active site motif together with a conserved catalytic lysine residue, to which we refer as the HhH-GPD/K family. In the yeast Ogg1 protein, yOgg1, the HhH-GPD/K motif spans residues 225-260 and the conserved lysine is K241. In this study, we have purified the K241R and K241Q mutant proteins and compared their catalytic and DNA binding properties to that of the wild-type yOgg1. The results show that the K241R mutation greatly impairs both the DNA glycosylase and the AP lyase activities of yOgg1.
The binding of Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis Fapy-DNA glyosylase (Fpg) proteins to DNA containing either cyclic or non-cyclic abasic (AP) site analogs was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and by footprinting experiments. We showed that the reduced AP site is the best substrate analog for the E. coli and L. lactis enzymes (K-Dapp = 0.26 and 0.5 nM, respectively) as compared with the other analogs tested in this study (K-Dapp > 2.8 nM), The 1,3-propanediol (Pr) residue-containing DNA seems to be the minimal AP site structure allowing a Fpg specific DNA binding, since the ethyleneglycol residue is not specifically bound by these enzymes.
A short synthetic route to an appropriately derivatized carbocyclic analogue of abasic site residues of DNA is proposed.
The homodimeric form a(2) of the Escherichia coli DNA-binding protein HU was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.09, b = 55.34, c = 117.63 Angstrom, and contain one monomer per asymmetric unit. A full diffraction data set was collected to 2.3 Angstrom resolution on a conventional X-ray source. The molecular-replacement method, using the HU crystallographic model from Bacillus stearothermophilus as a starting point, gave a reliable solution for the rotation and translation functions.
In this study, we have identified a protein in Escherichia coli that specifically binds to double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded gap of one nucleotide. The gap-DNA binding (GDB) protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, The analysis of the amino-terminal sequencing of the GDB protein shows two closely related sequences we identify as the a and ß subunits of the HU protein, Furthermore, the GDB protein is not detected in the crude extract of an E. coli double mutant strain hupA hupB that has no functional HU protein.
The Fpg protein of Escherichia coli is a DNA repair enzyme with DNA glycosylase, abasic site nicking, and deoxyribose excising activities. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of this protein suggests that the Fpg protein is a zinc finger protein with a Cys-X2-Cys-X16-Cys-X2-Cys motif. Competition experiments show that the Fpg protein substitutes Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II), metal ions classically associated with substitutions in zinc finger proteins. The Fpg protein activities are inhibited following the reaction with a Cys-specific reagent at low protein:reagent ratios, suggesting that these residues are important for the enzymatic activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce 6 mutant Fpg proteins with Cys —> Gly mutations.
A 34-mer oligonucleotide containing a single 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OxoG) residue was used to study the enzymatic and DNA binding properties of the Fpg protein from E.coli. The highest rates of incision of the 8-OxoG containing strand by the Fpg protein were observed for duplexes where 8-OxoG was opposite C (*G/C) or T (*G/T). In contrast, the rates of incision of duplexes containing 8-OxoG opposite G (*G/G) and A (*G/A) were 5-fold and 200-fold slower. Gel retardation studies showed that the Fpg protein had a strong affinity for duplexes where the 8-OxoG was opposite pyrimidines and less affinity for duplexes where the 8-OxoG was opposite purines. K(D)app values were 0.6 nM (*G/C), 1.0 nM (*G/T), 6.0 nM (*G/G) and 16.0 nM (*G/A).
The E. coli Formamidopyrimidine-DNA Glycosylase (FPG protein), a monomeric DNA repair enzyme of 30.2 kDa, was purified to homogeneity in large quantities. The FPG protein excises imidazole ring-opened purines and 8-hydroxyguanine residues from DNA. Besides DNA glycosylase activity, the FPG protein is endowed with an EDTA-resistant activity which nicks DNA at apurinic/apyrimidic sites (AP sites). In contrast, DNAs containing chemically reduced AP sites are not incised by the FPG protein. However, the DNA glycosylase activity of the FPG protein is strongly inhibited in the presence of a purified synthetic 24 base-pair double-stranded oligonucleotide which contains a single apurinic site transformed chemically through borohydride reduction into a ring-opened deoxyribose derivative.
We have purified the product of the NAM2 gene, the mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase, from yeast mitochondria. The purified protein cross-reacts with antibodies raised against the product of a LacZ/NAM2 gene fusion and antibodies raised against the purified Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase. The mass as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is about 100 kDa, consistent with the size predicted by the gene sequence (102 kDa). The N-terminal sequence of the protein has been determined and shows that the first nine amino acids predicted by the gene sequence have been removed, probably during transport into the mitochondria.
Directeur de recherche , Responsable de groupe thématique , Biologie de l’ARN et ARN thérapeutiques