BACKGROUND : Different pathophysiological mechanisms have been described in phenylketonuria (PKU) but the indirect metabolic consequences of metabolic disorders caused by elevated Phe or low Tyr concentrations remain partially unknown. We used a multiplatform metabolomics approach to evaluate the metabolic signature associated with Phe and Tyr.
MATERIAL AND METHODS : We prospectively included 10 PKU adult patients and matched controls. We analysed the metabolome profile using GC-MS (urine), amino-acid analyzer (urine and plasma) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (urine). We performed a multivariate analysis from the metabolome (after exclusion of Phe, Tyr and directly derived metabolites) to explain plasma Phe and Tyr concentrations, and the clinical status. Finally, we performed a univariate analysis of the most discriminant metabolites and we identified the associated metabolic pathways.
RESULTS : We obtained a metabolic pattern from 118 metabolites and we built excellent multivariate models to explain Phe, Tyr concentrations and PKU diagnosis. Common metabolites of these models were identified : Gln, Arg, succinate and alpha aminobutyric acid. Univariate analysis showed an inverse correlation between Arg, alpha aminobutyric acid and Phe and a positive correlation between Arg, succinate, Gln and Tyr (p < 0.0003). Thus, we highlighted the following pathways : Arg and Pro, Ala, Asp and Glu metabolism.
DISCUSSION : We obtain a specific metabolic signature related to Tyr and Phe concentrations. We confirmed the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms previously described in PKU such as protein synthesis, energetic metabolism and oxidative stress. The metabolomics approach is relevant to explore PKU pathogenesis.
Different pathophysiological mechanisms have been described in phenylketonuria (PKU) but the indirect metabolic consequences of metabolic disorders caused by elevated Phe or low Tyr concentrations remain partially unknown. We used a multiplatform metabolomics approach to evaluate the metabolic signature associated with Phe and Tyr.
MATERIAL AND METHODS :
We prospectively included 10 PKU adult patients and matched controls. We analysed the metabolome profile using GC-MS (urine), amino-acid analyzer (urine and plasma) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (urine). We performed a multivariate analysis from the metabolome (after exclusion of Phe, Tyr and directly derived metabolites) to explain plasma Phe and Tyr concentrations, and the clinical status. Finally, we performed a univariate analysis of the most discriminant metabolites and we identified the associated metabolic pathways.
We obtained a metabolic pattern from 118 metabolites and we built excellent multivariate models to explain Phe, Tyr concentrations and PKU diagnosis. Common metabolites of these models were identified : Gln, Arg, succinate and alpha aminobutyric acid. Univariate analysis showed an inverse correlation between Arg, alpha aminobutyric acid and Phe and a positive correlation between Arg, succinate, Gln and Tyr (p < 0.0003). Thus, we highlighted the following pathways : Arg and Pro, Ala, Asp and Glu metabolism.
We obtain a specific metabolic signature related to Tyr and Phe concentrations. We confirmed the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms previously described in PKU such as protein synthesis, energetic metabolism and oxidative stress. The metabolomics approach is relevant to explore PKU pathogenesis.
Trappin-2 is a serine protease inhibitor with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum and has significant anti-microbial activities. It is a 10 kDa cationic protein composed of two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain (38 residues) named cementoin is known to be intrinsically disordered when it is not linked to the elafin. The C-terminal domain (57 residues), corresponding to elafin, is a cysteine-rich domain stabilized by four disulfide bridges and is characterized by a flat core and a flexible N-terminal part. To our knowledge, there is no structural data available on trappin-2. We report here the complete 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignment of the recombinant trappin-2 and the 1H assignments of cementoin and elafin, under the same experimental conditions. This is the first step towards the 3D structure determination of the trappin-2.
The nucleoid-associated protein HU is involved in numerous DNA transactions and thus is essential in DNA maintenance and bacterial survival. The high affinity of HU for SSBs (single-strand breaks) has suggested its involvement in DNA protection, repair and recombination. SSB-containing DNA are major intermediates transiently generated by bifunctional DNA N-glycosylases that initiate the BER (base excision repair) pathway. Enzyme kinetics and DNA-binding experiments demonstrate that HU enhances the 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase activity of Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) by facilitating the release of the enzyme from its final DNA product (one nucleoside gap). We propose that the displacement of Fpg from its end-DNA product by HU is an active mechanism in which HU recognizes the product when it is still bound by Fpg. Through DNA binding, the two proteins interplay to form a transient ternary complex Fpg/DNA/HU which results in the release of Fpg and the molecular entrapment of SSBs by HU. These results support the involvement of HU in BER in vivo.
A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1) between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2) between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7 mM(-1) s(-1) at 60 MHz, 310 K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH 7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (≈80 %) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved.
HU is one of the major nucleoid-associated proteins involved in bacterial chromosome structure and in all DNA-dependent cellular activities. Similarly to eukaryotic histones, this small dimeric basic protein wraps DNA in a non-sequence specific manner, promoting DNA super-structures. In most bacteria, HU is a homodimeric protein encoded by a single gene. However, in enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, the presence of two genes coding for two peptidic chains, HUα and HUβ, lead to the coexistence of three forms : two homodimers EcHUα2 and EcHUβ2, as well as a heterodimer EcHUαβ. Genetic and biochemical investigation suggest that each EcHU dimer plays a specific physiological role in bacteria. Their relative abundance depends on the environmental conditions and is driven by an essential, yet unknown, fast outstanding chain-exchange mechanism at physiological temperature. Our goal is to understand this fundamental mechanism from a structural and kinetics standpoint using NMR. For this purpose, the first steps are the assignment of each dimer in their native and intermediate states. Here, we report the backbone assignment of each HU dimers from E. coli at 293 K in their native state.
In the track of new biopesticides, four genes namely cytA, cytB, cytC and cytD encoding proteins homologous to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt toxins have been identified in the plant pathogenic bacteria Dickeya dadantii genome. Here we show that three Cyt-like δ-endotoxins from D. dadantii (CytA, CytB and CytC) are toxic to the pathogen of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum in terms of both mortality and growth rate. The phylogenetic analysis of the comprehensive set of Cyt toxins available in genomic databases shows that the whole family is of limited taxonomic occurrence, though in quite diverse microbial taxa. From a structure-function perspective the 3D structure of CytC and its backbone dynamics in solution have been determined by NMR. CytC adopts a cytolysin fold, structurally classified as a Cyt2-like protein. Moreover, the identification of a putative lipid binding pocket in CytC structure, which has been probably maintained in most members of the Cyt-toxin family, could support the importance of this lipid binding cavity for the mechanism of action of the whole family. This integrative approach provided significant insights into the evolutionary and functional history of D. dadantii Cyt toxins, which appears to be interesting leads for biopesticides.
MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55 in laboratory growth conditions and is structurally unrelated to other DNA-binding proteins. MC1 functions are to shape and to protect DNA against thermal denaturation by binding to it. Therefore, MC1 has a strong affinity for any double-stranded DNA. However, it recognizes and preferentially binds to bent DNA, such as four-way junctions and negatively supercoiled DNA minicircles. Combining NMR data, electron microscopy data, biochemistry, molecular modelisation and docking approaches, we proposed recently a new type of DNA/protein complex, in which the monomeric protein MC1 binds on the concave side of a strongly bent 15 base pairs DNA. We present here the NMR chemical shifts assignments of each partner in the complex, 1H 15N MC1 protein and 1H 13C 15N bent duplex DNA, as first step towards the first experimental 3D structure of this new type of DNA/protein complex.
Plant defensins (PDF) are cysteine-rich peptides that are major actors in the innate immunity in plants. Besides their antifungal activity, some PDF such as Arabidopsis halleri PDF1.1b confer zinc tolerance in plants. Here we present (i) an efficient protocol for the production of AhPDF1.1b by solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by controlled oxidative folding to obtain the highly pure native form of the defensin and (ii) the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance structure of AhPDF1.1b, the first 3D structure of plant defensin obtained with a synthetic peptide. Its fold is organized around the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix ?-sheet motif and contains the ?-core motif involved in the antifungal activity of all plant defensins. On the basis of our structural analysis of AhPDF1 defensins combined with previous biological data for antifungal and zinc tolerance activities, we established the essential role of cis-Pro41 within the ?-core. In fact, the four consecutive residues (Val39-Phe40-Pro41-Ala42) are strictly conserved for plant defensins able to tolerate zinc. We hypothesized that structural and/or dynamic features of this sequence are related to the ability of the defensin to chelate zinc.
Gallin is a 41-residue protein, first identified as a minor component of hen egg white and found to be antimicrobial against Escherichia coli. Gallin may participate in the protection of the embryo during its development in the egg. Its sequence is related to antimicrobial beta-defensin peptides. In the present study, gallin was chemically synthesized 1) to further investigate its antimicrobial spectrum and 2) to solve its three-dimensional NMR structure and thus gain insight into structure-function relationships, a prerequisite to understanding its mode(s) of action. Antibacterial assays confirmed that gallin was active against Escherichia coli, but no additional antibacterial activity was observed against the other Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria tested. The three-dimensional structure of gallin, which is the first ovodefensin structure to have been solved to date, displays a new five-stranded arrangement. The gallin three-dimensional fold contains the three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and the disulfide bridge array typical of vertebrate beta-defensins. Gallin can therefore be unambiguously classified as a beta-defensin. However, an additional short two-stranded beta-sheet reveals that gallin and presumably the other ovodefensins form a new structural subfamily of beta-defensins. Moreover, gallin and the other ovodefensins calculated by homology modeling exhibit atypical hydrophobic surface properties, compared with the already known vertebrate beta-defensins. These specific structural features of gallin might be related to its restricted activity against E. coli and/or to other yet unknown functions. This work provides initial understanding of a critical sequence-structure-function relationship for the ovodefensin family.
In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1) from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.
Mitogaligin is a mitochondrion-targeting protein involved in cell death. The sequence of the protein is unrelated to that of any known pro- or antiapoptotic protein. Mitochondrial targeting is controlled by an internal sequence from residues 31 to 53, and although this sequence is essential and sufficient to provoke cell death, the precise mechanism of action at the mitochondrial membrane remains to be elucidated. Here, by focusing on the [31–53] fragment, we first assessed and confirmed its cell cytotoxicity by microinjection. Subsequently, with the aid of membrane models, we evaluated the impact of the membrane environment on the 3D structure of the peptide and on how the peptide is embedded and oriented within membranes. The fragment is well organized, even though it does not contain a canonical secondary structure, and adopts an interfacial location. Structural comparison with other membrane-interacting Trp-rich peptides demonstrated similarities with the antimicrobial peptide tritrpcidin.
Numerous β-defensins have been identified in birds and the potential use of these peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has been proposed, in particular to fight antibiotic-resistant and zoonotic bacterial species. Little is known about the mechanism of antibacterial activity of avian β-defensins (AvBDs), and the present work was carried out to obtain initial insights into the involvement of structural features or specific residues in the antimicrobial activity of chicken AvBD2. Chicken AvBD2 and its enantiomeric counterpart were chemically synthesized. Peptide elongation and oxidative folding were both optimized. The similar antimicrobial activity measured for both L- and D- proteins clearly indicates that there is no chiral partner. Therefore the bacterial membrane is in all likelihood the primary target. Moreover, this work evidences that the three-dimensional fold is required for an optimal antimicrobial activity, in particular for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The three-dimensional NMR structure of chicken AvBD2 defensin displays the structural 3-stranded antiparallel β-sheet characteristic of β-defensins. The surface of the molecule does not display any amphipathic character. In light of this new structure and of the king penguin AvBD103b defensin structure, the consensus sequence of avian β-defensin′s family was analyzed. Well conserved residues were highlighted and the potential strategic role of the lysine 31 residue of AvBD2 emphasized. The synthetic AvBD2-K31A variant displayed substantial N-terminal structural modifications and a dramatic decrease in activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the structural as well as the functional role of the critical lysine 31 residue in antimicrobial activity.
Stomoxyn and spinigerin belong to the class of linear cysteine-free insect antimicrobial peptides that kill a range of microorganisms, parasites, and some viruses but without any lytic activity against mammalian erythrocytes. Stomoxyn is localized in the gut epithelium of the nonvector stable fly that is sympatric with the trypanosome vector tsetse fly. Spinigerin is stored and secreted by hemocytes from the fungus-growing termite.
Plant LTP1 are small helical proteins stabilized by four disulfide bridges and are characterized by the presence of an internal cavity, in which various hydrophobic ligands can be inserted. Recently, we have determined the solution structure of the recombinant tobacco LTP1_1. Unexpectedly, despite a global fold very similar to the structures already known for cereal seed LTP1, its binding properties are different : Tobacco LTP1_1 is able to bind only one monoacylated lipid, whereas cereal LTP1 can bind either one or two. The 3D structure of tobacco LTP1_1 revealed the presence of a hydrophobic cluster, not observed on cereal LTP1 structures, which may hinder one of the two entrances of the cavity defined for wheat LTP1.
Plant lipid transfer proteins are small soluble extracellular proteins that are able to bind and transfer a variety of lipids in vitro. Recently, it has been proposed that lipid transfer proteins may play a key role in plant defence mechanisms, especially during the induction of systemic acquired resistance. However, very little is known about the proteins expressed in developing plants and tissues, since almost all the biophysical and structural data available to date on lipid transfer proteins originate from proteins present in storage tissues of monocot cereal seeds. In this paper, we report the structural and functional characteristics of a lipid transfer protein (named LTP1_1) constitutively expressed in young aerial organs of Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco).
Recently two ß-defensins, named spheniscins, have been isolated from the stomach content of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), which is capable of preserving food for several weeks during egg incubation (Thouzeau, C., Le Maho, Y., Froget, G., Sabatier, L., Le Bohec, C., Hoffmann, J.A., and Bulet, P. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 51053-51058). It has been proposed that, in combination with other antimicrobial peptides, spheniscins may be involved in this long term preservation of food in the bird’s stomach. To draw some structure/function features, the three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution of the most abundant spheniscin (Sphe-2) was determined by two-dimensional NMR and molecular modeling techniques. The overall fold of Sphe-2 includes a three-stranded antiparallel ß-sheet stabilized by three disulfide bridges with a pairing typical of ß-defensins. In addition, the N-terminal segment shows helical features on most structures. Sphe-2 is highly cationic, and its surface displays a hydrophobic patch.
Two new cyclooctapeptides, cherimolacyclopeptide A, cyclo(Pro(1)-Gln(2)-Thr(3)-Gly(4)-Met(5)-Leu(6)-Pro(7)-Ile(8)-) (1) and the related cherimolacyclopeptide B, cyclo(Pro(1)-Gln(2)-Thr(3)-Gly(4)-Mso(5)-Leu(6)-Pro(7)-Ile(8)-) (2), have been isolated from the methanol extract of the seeds of Annona cherimola Miller. The sequences were elucidated on the basis of the MS/MS fragmentation, using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI source, chemical degradation and extensive 2D-heteronuclear NMR. The three-dimensional solution structure of cherimolacyclopeptide A (1) determined by H-1 NMR data and molecular modelling is characterised by the presence of two ß turns and a new type of ß-bulge. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The hydrophobic cavity of Lipid Transfer Protein 1 from Nicotiana tabacum is investigated in detail by NMR using xenon as a spy. The analysis of the Xe-129 chemical shifts and self-relaxation times gives evidence of protein-xenon interaction. Thermodynamics of the binding is characterized through the study of aliphatic H-1 and C-13 chemical shift variation as a function of xenon pressure. The binding constant is evaluated to 75.5 +/- 1.0 M-1 at 293 K. The location of xenon inside the cavity is deduced from SPINOE experiments.
Antimicrobial peptides are key components of the innate immune response in most multicellular organisms. These molecules are considered as one of the most innovative class of anti-infective agents that have been discovered over the last two decades, and therefore, as a source of inspiration for novel drug design. Insect cystein-rich antimicrobial peptides with the CSaß scaffold (an a-helix linked to a ß-sheet by two disulfide bridges) represent particularly attractive templates for the development of systemic agents owing to their remarkable resistance to protease degradation.
Insect peptides are key elements of the innate immunity against bacteria and fungi. These molecules offer remarkable properties : high efficacy, a low probability of resistance, limited toxicity, and immunogenicity. In this context, we are investigating several classes of peptides, and we have been successful in identifying biologically important classes of peptides and small molecules that will provide a stream of drug candidates for treating severe, life-threatening, hospital-acquired infections and other pathologies of high medical need.
The conversion of the cellular prion protein into the ß-sheet-rich scrapie prion protein is thought to be the key step in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. To gain insight into this structural conversion, we analyzed the intrinsic structural propensity of the amino acid sequence of the murine prion C-terminal domain. For that purpose, this globular domain was dissected into its secondary structural elements and the structural propensity of the protein fragments was determined. Our results show that all these fragments, excepted that strictly encompassing helix 1, have a very high propensity to form structured aggregates with a dominant content of ß-sheet structures. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
In response to an experimental infection, the lepidopteran Heliothis virescens produces an antifungal protein named heliomicin. Heliomicin displays sequence similarities with antifungal plant defensins and antibacterial or antifungal insect defensins. To gain information about the structural elements required for either antifungal or antibacterial activity, heliomicin and selected point-mutated variants were expressed in yeast as fusion proteins. The effects of mutations, defined by comparing the primary structure of heliomicin with the sequences of members of the insect defensin family, were analyzed using antibacterial and antifungal assays. One of the variants shows significant activity against Gram-positive bacteria while remaining efficient against fungi.
Androctonin is a 25-residue antibacterial peptide extracted from the hemolymph of the scorpion Androctonus australis. In order to understand the structural requirements for hairpin fold and for interactions with the bacterial membrane, we have analysed the chemical shifts and the noes of three synthetic androctonin mutants for which the disulfide bridges were selectively removed. (C) 2001 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.
Nonspecific lipid transfer protein from wheat is studied by liquid-state NMR in the presence of xenon. The gas-protein interaction is indicated by the dependence of the protein proton chemical shifts on the xenon pressure and formally confirmed by the first observation of magnetization transfer from laser-polarized xenon to the protein protons. Twenty-six heteronuclear nOes have allowed the characterization of four interaction sites inside the wheat ns-LTP cavity, Their locations are in agreement with the variations of the chemical shifts under xenon pressure and with solvation simulations. The richness of the information obtained by the noble gas with a nuclear polarization multiplied by similar to 12,000 makes this approach based on dipolar cross-relaxation with laser-polarized xenon promising for probing protein hydrophobic pockets at ambient pressure.
The conditions of observation and characterization of magnetization transfert between laser-polarized xenon 129 and protein protons are addressed. This is experimentally illustrated by its first detection obtained an the wheat non-specific lipid transfer protein. (C) 2001 Academic des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.
Drosomycin is the first strictly antifungal protein isolated from an insect (Drosophila melanogaster). The solution structure of this 44-residue protein has been reported previously. It involves a three-stranded ß-sheet and an a-helix, the protein global fold being maintained by four disulfide bridges. Rs-AFP2 is a plant antifungal protein exhibiting 41% sequence similarity with drosomycin.
The scorpion venoms possess many neurotoxic peptides which constitute a group of molecular families with a common architecture and a high degree of polymorphism. This architecture is found also in circulating antimicrobial peptides belonging to the defensins family, which are especially structurally related to the blocking potassium channels neurotoxins. The diversification in functions with a unique architectural scheme is discussed taking in account the biophysiological characteristics of the scorpion order.
A novel 90 degrees composite pulse sequence which allows one to record 1D and 2D NMR spectra without disturbing the water magnetization is described. A home-written program was used to optimize the pulse angles for which the pulse sequence response fitted best the desired excitation profile, producing a neat and distortionless spectrum with a broad null excitation at the carrier frequency. The resulting pulse sequence was first evaluated using the simulation program "PENCIL" and then tested on two protein samples. A 3.5 degrees phase shift of the last pulse was required to cancel correctly the water signal. The pulse scheme was appended to a NOESY pulse sequence. Inspection of the water cross section revealed interactions between water and some protons of drosomycine, a small insect antifungal protein. (C) 1998 Academic Press.
Drosomycin is the first antifungal protein characterized recently among the broad family of inducible peptides and proteins produced by insects to respond to bacterial or septic injuries. It is a small protein of 44 amino acid residues extracted from Drosophila melanogaster that exhibits a potent activity against filamentous fungi. Its three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution was determined using H-1 2D NMR. This structure, involving an a-helix and a twisted three-stranded ß-sheet, is stabilized by three disulfide bridges. The corresponding Cysteine Stabilized a ß (CS a ß) motif which was found in other defense proteins such as the antibacterial insect defensin A, short-and long-chain scorpion toxins, as well as in plant thionins and potent antifungal plant defensins, appears as remarkably persistent along evolution.
The solution structure of the anti-mammal and anti-insect LqqIII toxin from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus was refined and compared with other long-chain scorpion toxins, This structure, determined by H-1-NMR and molecular modeling, involves an a-helix (18-29) linked to a three-stranded ß-sheet (2-6, 33-39, and 43-51) by two disulfide bridges, The average RMSD between the 15 best structures and the mean structure is 0.71 Angstrom for C a atoms, Comparison between LqqIII, the potent anti-mammal AaHII, and the weakly active variant-3 toxins revealed that the LqqIII three-dimensional structure is closer to that of AaHII than to the variant-3 structure, Moreover, striking analogies were observed between the electrostatic and hydrophobic potentials of LqqIII and AaHII.