Paradis D., Berail G., Bonmatin J.M. and Belzunces L.P.
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry (2014) 406 (2) 621-633 - doi : 10.1007/s00216-013-7483-z
publié le , mis à jour le
Several methods for analyzing pesticides in honey have been developed. However, they do not always reach the sufficiently low limits of quantification (LOQ) needed to quantify pesticides toxic to honey bees at low doses. To properly evaluate the toxicity of pesticides, LOQ have to reach at least 1 ng/g. In this context, we developed extraction and analytical methods for the simultaneous detection of 22 relevant insecticides belonging to three chemical families (neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, and pyrazoles) in honey. The insecticides were extracted with the QuEChERS method that consists in an extraction and a purification with mixtures of salts adapted to the matrix and the substances to be extracted. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the pyrazoles and the pyrethroids and by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the neonicotinoids and ethiprole. Calibration curves were built from various honey types fortified at different concentrations. Linear responses were obtained between 0.2 and 5 ng/g. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.07 and 0.2 ng/g, and LOQ ranged between 0.2 and 0.5 ng/g. The mean extraction yields ranged between 63 % and 139 % with RSD <25 %. A complete validation of the methods also examined recovery rates and specificity. These methods were applied to 90 honey samples collected during a 2009-2010 field study in two apiaries placed in different anthropic contexts.