A new constraint potential is proposed for the refinement of the three-dimensional structure of biomolecules in solution from nmr data. It is based on the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) intensity calculations, taking into account the spin diffusion phenomenon. For restrained energy minimization or molecular dynamics techniques, a constraint potential term expressed as a function of the negative inverse of the sixth power of the NOE intensities (NOE-1/6) is added to the classical potential energy function. The properties of this new NOE constraint potential are discussed and compared to those of a harmonic NOE intensity potential. The method integrated in the molecular modeling program GROMOS is tested on the regular alpha-helical structure of a decaglycylpeptide.
A new and simple model enabling a chemical species to be brought to a preselected site in single strand DNA is reported. Two oligonucleotides containing a propanediol linkage were hybridized to their complementary sequences with an extra-base opposite the propanediol derivative. Absorption studies results shown that the addition of a bisacridine derivative strongly increased the stabilities of both duplexes when added in a 1:1 ratio. NMR studies on one of these duplexes brought evidence of the intercalation of the bisacridine at the position involving the propanediol linkage. These results suggest that this system could be used to target a specific reaction at a preselected position using the bisacridine derivative as carrier for the reactive species.
A rat IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb3A33) directed against the mouse Mac-1 antigen was conjugated with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) by using an intermediate polymer ; under such conditions 75 MDP molecules were bound to one antibody molecule. A poly(L-lysine) polymer substituted with muramyl dipeptide and 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl residues was prepared, the remaining lysine epsilon-amino groups were acylated with D-gluconolactone, leading to a neutral polymer ; then a few polymer conjugates were coupled to mAb3A33 via a disulfide bridge. The binding capacity of the monoclonal antibody was preserved after conjugation with MDP-polymer molecules.
To determine the effect of lipoprotein lipase deficiency on the size distribution of fat cell populations in human adipose tissues, abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat tissue biopsies were obtained from seven patients affected by familial hyperchylomicronaemia. These patients were characterized by massive accumulation of chylomicrons in the fasting state due to defective catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. They had no post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and their fat tissues were deficient in lipoprotein lipase activity.
Bioactivity-guided purification of a crude alkaloid extract of Psychotria oleoides has afforded a new alkaloid, psycholeine , together with quadrigemine C , a tetrameric pyrrolidinoindoline compound of unknown stereochemistry. A comparison study of nmr and cd spectra of quadrigemine C and hodgkinsine , a trimeric pyrrolidinoindoline substance, led us to suggest the stereochemistry of quadrigemine C. The structure and configuration of psycholeine was determined by spectroscopic means and chemical correlation with quadrigemine C. Psycholeine interacts with somatostatin receptors and exhibits a somatostatin antagonistic activity on GH secretion by pituitary cells in primary culture.
We previously identified IgM autoantibodies in the sera of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) that react with a subset of normal human B lymphocytes and induce B cell differentiation in vitro. From splenocytes of a patient with WAS we generated heterohybridomas (HY18 and HY21) and a lymphoblastoid cell line (LWA10) that produce human IgM-lambda or IgM-kappa anti-B lymphocyte autoantibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical and multiparameter flow cytometric analyses demonstrate that these autoantibodies are specific for lymphocytes of the B lineage and preferentially stain B cells that reside in the mantle zone of secondary follicles and that constitutively co-express the CD5 surface antigen and most major autoantibody-associated cross-reactive idiotypes ; in addition, these antibodies stain most pre-B cells in adult bone marrow.
We study the effective dielectric tensor for a composite of spheres with anisotropic dielectric tensor embedded in an isotropic uniform medium. We also study the effective conductivity tensor for a suspension of conducting spheres, where both the spheres and the conducting background medium are gyrotropic due to an applied magnetic field. The anisotropy of the effective conductivity tensor leads to the Hall effect. In theory the two problems are rather similar. We derive expressions of the Clausius-Mossotti type for the effective tensors. Correlation corrections are evaluated for weak gyrotropy by computer simulation. We consider both uniform spheres and the dipole approximation.
Antileishmanial chemotherapy is hampered by the location of the parasite within the phagolysosome of the macrophage, which restricts the bioavailability of many potentially useful antileishmanial drugs. In this study, the possibility of using antileishmanial drugs targeted to the infected macrophages by means of a chemical linkage to a neutral mannose-substituted poly-L-lysine carrier molecule was explored. The study was performed in an in vitro model with Leishmania donovani-infected murine macrophages. The antileishmanial activities of various synthetic constructs were compared with those of the free drugs and the pentavalent antimonial Pentostam, which was used as the positive control. The 50% effective dose of allopurinol riboside linked to the mannosylated poly-L-lysine was below 7.5 x 10(-6) M, while it was up to 3 x 10(-4) M for the free drug, indicating that the drug bound to the polymer was 50 times more active than the free drug. Control experiments with other constructs (e.g., allopurinol riboside linked to the mannose-free polymer) confirmed that the enhancement of activity was indeed achieved by means of the mannose homing device.
The interaction of netropsin, a minor groove binding drug, with T-A-T triple helix and A-T double helix was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy and thermal denaturation. The triple helix was made by an oligonucleotide (dA)12-x-(dT)12-x-(dT)12, where x is a hexaethylene glycol chain bridged between the 3’ phosphate of one strand and the 5’ phosphate of the following strand. This oligonucleotide is able to fold back on itself to form a very stable triplex. Changing the conditions allows the same oligonucleotide in a duplex form with a (dT)12 dangling arm. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrates that netropsin can bind to the triple helical structure. Spectral analysis shows that the bound drug exhibits a conformation and an environment similar in double-stranded and in triple-stranded structure. However, the binding constant to the triple-stranded structure is found smaller than the binding constant to the double-stranded one. Thermal denaturation experiments demonstrate that netropsin destabilizes the triplex whereas it stabilizes the duplex.